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  • AC Efficiency
  • The ratio of the output power from the UPS to the input power from the AC utility in Line mode.
  • AC Utility
  • The electric power furnished by an electric power plant
  • AH
  • The unit of battery capacity.
  • Ampere (Amp or A)
  • The unit of for electric current.
  • Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR)
  • An AVR regulates voltage to the appropriate level.
  • Backup Time
  • The time provided by battery in a UPS system when AC utility loss.
  • Backup Time/Runtime
  • The duration that UPS supplies backup power to the electrical appliances while power failure. The unit of backup time is minute and calculates backup time from black out happening to battery used up.
  • Battery Charging Current
  • Complete loss of power. Some literature considers a voltage drop below about 80V to be a blackout as well since most equipment will not operate below these levels.
  • Buck and Boost
  • A function to adjust the output of UPS. When the voltage is under normal condition then the UPS will boost the voltage higher. When the voltage is over normal condition then the UPS will buck the voltage lower.
  • Cold start function
  • The UPS can be started from battery directly without AC utility. Some people also name it as DC start.
  • Communication
  • UPSs can often communicate with computer equipment in order to allow the UPS to trigger a controlled automatic shutdown of the computer. This is usually done when the mains has failed and the UPS battery power is close to being used up.
  • DC Efficiency
  • The ratio of the output power from the UPS to the input power from the batteries in Battery Mode.
  • DC Voltage
  • Normally, it is used for the battery voltage.
  • Fast Charging
  • It is the fast charging battery system to speed up charging time. For this case, the designer must be expert and use high technology in controlling charging system so battery does not damage.
  • Frequency
  • The number of completed cycles in one second. It is defined as Hertz (Hz). It exists 50 or 60 Hz power system in the world.
  • Harmonic Distortion
  • Distortion of an electrical sine wave caused by the power supplies of certain electronic devices. A mathematical representation of a distortion of a pure sine waveform.
  • Hot-swappable Batteries
  • Allow the user to easily exchange UPS batteries without turning off the UPS.
  • Input Power Cord
  • The cord for the AC input of UPS. Normally, there are three wires of Line-Neutral-Ground in it
  • Intelligent Battery Management (IBM)
  • The intelligent battery management will manage charging and discharging to get longer backup times and prolong battery life.
  • Inverter
  • A power supply which produces an AC output, usually from a DC input.
  • Isolation
  • Two circuits that are completely electrically separated with respect to DC potentials, and almost always also AC potentials. In power supplies, it is defined as the electrical separation of the input and output via the transformer.
  • Isolation Voltage
  • The maximum AC or DC voltage which maybe continuously applied from input to output and/or chassis of a power supply.
  • Leakage Current
  • A term relating to current flowing between the AC supply wires and earth ground. The term does not necessarily denote a fault condition. In power supplies, leakage current usually refers to the 60 Hertz current which flows through the EMI filter capacitors which are connected between the AC lines and ground (Y caps).
  • Line Interactive UPS
  • A type of uninterruptible power supply that is in standby mode most of the time but contains a transformer that helps condition and adjust the voltage until the voltage exceeds a set limit. If the voltage limit is exceeded, the UPS can support the load until the voltage returns to within the limits or the battery is drained.
  • Manual Bypass Switch
  • A manually operated transfer switch used to bypass the major electronics in the UPS. When it is enabled then the service engineer can have the repair service without power interruption.
  • MOV
  • Metal Oxide Varistors are added to circuits in order to control spikes. These are common in Power Strips. If you see more than two, you likely have a fairly decent Power Strip. They look like largish disk capacitors.
  • No Load Shut Down
  • UPS will shutdown itself when the utility fails and there is no load connected to UPS. This feature is to prolong battery life.
  • Nominal Voltage
  • A standard value assigned to a circuit for the purpose of conveniently designating its voltage class.
  • Online (double conversion) UPS
  • A type of uninterruptible power supply that is constantly converting the incoming power from AC to DC and then inverting DC back to AC. This double conversion process prevents power disturbances from reaching protected loads. The UPS batteries will support the load if conditions exceed a set limit.
  • Overvoltage Protection
  • A circuit which either shuts down the power supply or crowbars the output in the event of an overvoltage condition.
  • Power Factor (PF)
  • The ratio of true power to apparent power in an AC circuit. In power conversion technology, power factor is used in conjunction with describing the AC input current to the power supply.
  • Power failure
  • Total loss of utility power: Causes electrical equipment to stop working.
  • Pulse-width modulation (PWM)
  • A circuit used in switching regulated power supplies where the switching frequency is held constant and the width of the power pulse is varied, controlling both line and load changes with minimal dissipation.